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Chinese History - The Ten Kingdoms 十國 (902-979)

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The Ten Kingdoms
Southern Han 南漢 (Yue 粵)

period before (Tang)
-- Five Dynasties
next period (Song)
Map and Geography

Liu Qian 劉謙 was a powerful regional inspector (cishi 刺史) of Fengzhou 封州 (modern Xuzhou 徐州/Jiangsu), followed by his son Liu Yin 劉隱 (posthumous Nanhan Liezong 南漢烈宗 - see titles of emperors) who was installed as military commissioner (jiedushi 節度使) of Qinghai 清海 in 905 and enfeoffed as king of Pengjun 彭郡 in 907, later as king of Nanping 南平, then king of Nanhai 南海. Together with his brother Liu Yan 劉岩 he conquered the whole region of Lingnan 嶺南 (modern Guangxi and Guangdong). Liu Yan, ruler 911 on (posthumous Nanhan Gaozu 南漢高祖), proclaimed himself emperor of Dayue 大越, then of Han 漢 (Southern Han, Nanhan 南漢) in 917. The empire of Southern Han was understood as a civilian empire, and Liu Yan did not lay stress on the military education. Because of his extravagancies, he faced a rebellion of Zhang Yuxian 張遇賢 in 942. His successor Liu Sheng 劉晟 (posthumous Nanhan Zhongzong 南漢中宗) was able to conquer the empire of Chu in 951. The rebels around Zhang Yuxian requested the help of the empire of Southern Tang (Nantang 南唐) that defeated the last ruler of Southern Han. The armies of Song 宋 finally conquered this most southern territory of China in 971.

See also titles of rulers.

Southern Han (Nanhan) 南漢 (also called Yue 越; 917-971)

Capital: Fanyu 番禺 (modern Guangzhou 廣州/Guangdong)

temple name (dynastic title)
-----reign mottos (begin)

personal name


Nanhan Liezong 南漢烈宗Liu Yin 劉隱
Nanhan Gaozu 南漢高祖
-----Qianheng 乾亨 917
-----Bailong 白龍 925
------Dayou 大有 928
Liu Yan 劉巖 (or Yan 龑, Zhi 陟)917-941
(Nanhan Shangdi 南漢殤帝)
-----Guangtian 光天 942
Liu Fen 劉玢 (or Hongdu 宏度)942
Nanhan Zhongzong 南漢中宗
-----Yingqian 應乾 943
-----Qianhe 乾和 943
Liu Cheng 劉晟 (or Hongxi 宏熙)943-957
(The Last Ruler (Houzhu) 南漢後主, The Prince of Nanyue 南越王)
-----Dabao 大寶 958
Liu Jixing 劉繼興 (or Chang 鋹)958-971

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