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Chinese History - The Ten Kingdoms 十國 (902-979)
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Liu Qian 劉謙 was a powerful regional inspector (cishi 刺史) of Fengzhou 封州 (modern Xuzhou 徐州/Jiangsu), followed by his son Liu Yin 劉隱 (posthumous Nanhan Liezong 南漢烈宗 - see titles of emperors) who was installed as military commissioner (jiedushi 節度使) of Qinghai 清海 in 905 and enfeoffed as king of Pengjun 彭郡 in 907, later as king of Nanping 南平, then king of Nanhai 南海. Together with his brother Liu Yan 劉岩 he conquered the whole region of Lingnan 嶺南 (modern Guangxi and Guangdong). Liu Yan, ruler 911 on (posthumous Nanhan Gaozu 南漢高祖), proclaimed himself emperor of Dayue 大越, then of Han 漢 (Southern Han, Nanhan 南漢) in 917. The empire of Southern Han was understood as a civilian empire, and Liu Yan did not lay stress on the military education. Because of his extravagancies, he faced a rebellion of Zhang Yuxian 張遇賢 in 942. His successor Liu Sheng 劉晟 (posthumous Nanhan Zhongzong 南漢中宗) was able to conquer the empire of Chu in 951. The rebels around Zhang Yuxian requested the help of the empire of Southern Tang (Nantang 南唐) that defeated the last ruler of Southern Han. The armies of Song 宋 finally conquered this most southern territory of China in 971.
See also titles of rulers.
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