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Chinese History - The Five Dynasties 五代 (907-960)
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The Five DynastiesLater Liang Dynasty 後梁 907-923
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|The Five Dynasties were short-lived empires that were founded in the north as successor states of the great Tang Dynasty 唐. Their main or eastern capital was in Kaifeng 開封/Henan, the western capital was Luoyang 洛陽/Henan.||Map and Geography|
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g 李靖 and Li Ji 李勣 defeated the Xueyantuo 薛延陀 tribe (Syr Tardush) and destroyed the Eastern Turk federation. The territory occupied by the Turks was administered as area command (dudufu 都督府) Dingxiang 定襄 and Yunzhong 雲中 and protectorates (duhufu 都護府) Shanyu 單于, and Hanhai 瀚海.
|The qaghans of the first Eastern Turkish khanate:|
Tuobo 佗鉢, Anluo 菴羅, Shabolüe Qaghan 沙鉢略可汗 (Shetu 攝圖), Abo Qaghan 阿波可汗 (Daluobian 大邏便), Dulan Qaghan 都蘭可汗 (Yongyulü 雍虞閭), Qimin Qaghan 啟民可汗 (Rangan 染干), Shibi Qaghan 始畢可汗 (Duojishi 咄吉世), Tuli Qaghan 突利可汗 or Yehu Qaghan 葉護 (Chuluohou 處羅侯), Illig Qaghan 頡利可汗 (Chinese: Jieli, Duobi 咄苾)
The empire of the Eastern Turks was refounded by Xiedielishi Qaghan 頡跌利施可汗 who rebelled against the Tang government in 680. General Pei Xingjian 裴行儉 was not able to prevent the foundation of a new Turkish federation. Xiedielishi's successor Mochuo Qaghan 默啜可汗 began intensive war expeditions to the southeast and submitted the Tölöş (Chinese: Tiele 鐵勒), the Uighurs (Chinese: Huihe 回纥), Kirghiz (Chinese: Xiajiagas 黠戛斯), Türgiş (Chinese: Tuqishi 突騎施), and the Tuyuhun 吐谷渾 empire, in the east he defeated the Xi 奚 and Khitan and therewith created the greatest expansion of the Turkish empire. During the reign of Empress Wu Zetian 武則天 the Turks sought for economic help after some years of famine. Their economy had changed a pure nomadic lifestyle to agriculture with the cultivation of different field crops like wheat and millet. After the death of Mochuo the power of the Anshina clan weakened, and the Turks ceased to attack Chinese territory. In 744 the Uighur chieftain Gulipeiluo 骨力裴羅 killed the the last Eastern Turk Qaghan and adoptet the title qaghan himself.
|The qaghans of the later Eastern Turkish khanate:|
Ilterish Qaghan 頡跌利施可汗 (Chinese: Jiedielishi, Guduolu 骨咄祿), Qapaghan Qaghan 默啜可汗 (Chinese: Mochuo), Fuju 匐俱, Piqie Qaghan 毗伽可汗 (Chujilian 黜棘連), Yiran Qaghan 伊然可汗, Dengli Qaghan 登利可汗, Ozmysh Qaghan (Chinese: Wusumishi 烏蘇米施可汗), Baimei Qaghan 白眉可汗
The Western Turk khanate was founded by Istämi (Chinese: Shidianmi 室點密), a brother of the first Turkish ruler Tumen 土門. During his conquest of the west, Istämi integrated other Turkish tribes (like Chuyue 處月, Chumi 處密, Türgiş) and forced other Turkis tribes (like the Tölöş, Qarluq - Chinese: Geluolu 葛邏祿, Baximi 拔悉密) to participate within the Turkish federation. He created an alliance with the Sassanid empire in Persia (Chinese: Bosi 波斯) to control the silkroad. Later he defeated the Persian troops and expanded his territory until the Oxus River (Amudarja, modern Kazakhstan). After the disintegration of the Turkish empire in 582 the western part was ruled by three potentates: Abo Qaghan 阿波可汗, Datou Qaghan 達頭可汗, and Tanhan Qaghan 貪汗可汗. Datou Qaghan interferred into the power struggle of the Eastern Turks but had to flee to the Tuyuhun empire. After some internal quarrels, Shegui Qaghan 射匱可汗 reunited the Western Turks in 612, and 639 the Western Turks were organised in ten tribes (Turkish: on oq) and two wings (Chinese: xiang 厢) with a golden dart as symbol. The reunification and restrengthening of the Western Turks happened under Shaboluo Qaghan 沙鉢羅可汗 who attacked Chinese territory. He was captured in 658 by the Chinese general Su Dingfang who ended the rule of the Western Turks, and the protectorates Kunling 崑陵 and Mengchi 濛池 were established that were integrated to the Anxi 安西 and Beiting 北庭 protectorates in 702. The descendants of the Ashina 阿史那 clan acted as protectors-in-chief.
|The qaghans of the Western Turkish khanate:|
Istämi (Chinese: Shidianmi 室點密), Abo Qaghan 阿波可汗, Dianjue 玷厥 or Bujia Qaghan 步迦可汗 (Datou 達頭), Tanhan Qaghan 貪汗可汗, Nili Qaghan 泥利可汗, Nijuechuluo Qaghan 泥撅處羅可汗 (Hesana 曷薩那), Shegui Qaghan 射匱可汗, Tongyehu Qaghan 統野護可汗, Moheduosiqulisipidulu 莫賀咄俟屈利俟毗都陸 (Yangsuteqin 鞅素特勤), Yipiboluosiyehu 乙毗鉢羅肆葉護, Duolu Qaghan 咄羅可汗 (Nishu 泥孰), Shaboluodielishi 沙鉢羅咥利失, Yipiduoluo 乙毗咄羅, Moheduoyipiyehu 莫賀咄乙毗葉護, Yipishaboluoyehu 乙毗沙鉢羅葉護, Yipishegui 乙毗射匱, Shaboluo Qaghan 沙鉢羅可汗 (Helu 賀魯)
Xingxiwang Qaghan 興昔亡可汗 (Mishe 彌射) + Jiwangjue Qaghan 繼往絕可汗 (Buzhen 步真), Anshina Yuanqing 阿史那元慶 + Jiezhong Shizhu Kehan 竭忠事主可汗 (Huseluo 斛瑟羅), Onoq Qaghan (Chinese: Shixing Kehan 十姓可汗, Tuizi 俀子), Anshina Huaidao 阿史那懷道, Anshina Xian 阿史那獻, Anshia Xin 阿史那昕
Today the Turkish population of China is mainly located in Xinjiang province where we find the groups of Ainu (not related to the Japanese aboriginal population), Ili Turks, Uyghurs, Yugurs, and Salar.