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Chinese History - Ming Dynasty 明朝 (1368-1644)

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Ming Dtuasty

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The founder of the Ming Dynasty, Zhu Yuanzhang 朱元璋 (reign motto Hongwu 洪武 "Inundating Martiality"), was a poor man when he joined the Red Turban (Hongjin 紅巾) rebellion in the lower Yangtse region. Similar to the founder of the Han Dynasty, he was very suspicious of the educated courtiers around him and exerted an extremely authoritarian regime ("the tyrant of Nanjing"). This harsh governmental style was partly due to the influence of governmental institutions of the previous Mongol period that were marked by a strong centralization. Zhu Yuanzhang, full of mistrust, took over the whole responsibility of the imperial administration by abolishing crucial ministries and secretaries. To control the highest officials at the court, he installed the so-called Brocade Guards (Jinyiwei 錦衣衛), a kind of secret service staffed with the only kind of people he trusted, namely the eunuchs. During the whole course of Ming Dynasty, there was always prevalent a deep mistrust between the scholarship elite, that occupied the governmental posts in the capital(s) and in the prefectures, and the central government, that was often deeply influenced by some high ranking eunuchs. The authoritarian and centralized politics of the Ming government lead to a status of immovability and orthodoxy.
The second emperor of Ming was overthrown by his own uncle, who adopted the reign title Yongle 永樂 "Everlasting Joy", and shifted the capital from Nanjing (Yingtianfu 應天府) to Beijing (Jingshi 京師, Shuntianfu 順天府). The Yongle Emperor's reign was the most flourishing time of the Ming Dynasty.
The Ming Dynasty is famous for the influence of the eunuchs on political affairs. Basically trusted with tasks of imperial household affairs, many eunuchs were able to climb up the social ladder and to occupy posts at the court that made them able to influence the ruler and his decisions. The great part of the eunuchs came from poor families of north China, while the scholar-officials that traditionally occupied governmental posts, came from gentry clans in southern China. The problem of the intermingling of the eunuchs into state affairs was not new: The last Han emperor had to get rid of the eunuchs with the help of a military dictator, and the Song Dynasty scholar Ouyang Xiu wrote an essay about the influence of eunuchs during the Five Dynasties.
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域都護) was established, and the Chinese became masters of the trade routes to the west. Three years later the Xiongnu divided into a western and an eastern branch, the eastern ruler Huhanya 呼韓邪 surrendered to the Chinese in 51 BC, he was rewarded with a Chinese princess named Wang Zhaojun 王昭君 sent to his court, a famous story often retold and arranged like in the Yuan time theatre play "Autumn in the Han Palace" (Hangongqiu 漢宮秋).
At the begin of Later Han (Houhan 後漢) the Xiongnu divided into the southern tribes and the northern tribes. While the northern part of the Xiongnu federation roamed the grasslands north of the fortification walls, the southern Xiongnu became sedentate and settled down in the area of modern Shaanxi and Shanxi provinces, side by side with Chinese inhabitants. Cao Cao 曹操, the potentate at the end of Han, forced a planful separation of the Xiongnu aristocracy from the Xiongnu people and thereby lead to the disappearing of the Xiongnu as part of the population of northern China. When the Jin Dynasty 晉 suffered under the power struggles of the various princes, the Xiongnu Liu Yao 劉曜 founded the Former Zhao (Qianzhao 前趙) empire, at the end of the 4th century the Xiongnu Helian Bobo 赫連勃勃 founded the Xia Dynasty 夏, both dynasties being one of the Sixteen Non-Chineses kingdoms of the north during the time of south-north division (Nanbeichao 南北朝). The northern Xiongnu tribes were defeated in 89 AD by the Han generals Dou Xian 竇憲 and Geng Bing 耿秉, and from now on the Xiongnu ceased to represent a military challenge for the Chinese empire. Some western scholars think the Xiongnu migrated to the west and reappeared in Eastern Europe as the Huns in the 4th century. From the 3rd century on the Mongolian grassland was occupied by a new challenging nomad people - the