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Chinese History - Jin Dynasty 金 (1115-1234)

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Jin Dynasty
emperors and rulers

period before (Five Dynasties)
-- Song Dynasty
--aLiao Dynasty
-- Xixia Empire
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See also titles of rulers.

Rulers of the Jin Dynasty 金 (1115-1234)

dynastic title
-----reign mottos (begin)

temple name

personal name


Jin Taizu 金太祖
-----Shouguo 收國
-----Tianfu 天輔 1117
Wanyan Min 完顏旻 (Aguda 阿骨打)1115-1123
Jin Taizong 金太宗
-----Tianhui 天會
Wanyan Sheng; not -cheng! 完顏晟1123-1135
Jin Xizong 金熙宗
-----Tianhui 天會
-----Tianjuan 天眷 1138
-----Huangtong 皇統 1141
Wanyan Dan 完顏亶1135-1149
(The Prince of Hailing 海陵王)
-----Tiande 天德
-----Zhenyuan 貞元 1153
-----Zhenglong 正隆 1156
Wanyan Liang 完顏亮1149-1161
Jin Shizong 金世宗
-----Dading 大定
Wanyan Yong 完顏雍1161-1190
Jin Zhangzong 金章宗
-----Mingchang 明昌
-----Cheng'an 承安 1196
-----Taihe 泰和 1201
Wanyan Jing 完顏璟1190-1209
(The Prince of Weishao 衛紹王)
-----Daan 大安
-----Chongqing 崇慶 1212
-----Zhining 至寧 1213
Wanyan Yongji 完顏永濟 (Yunji 允濟)1209-1213
Jin Xuanzong 金宣宗
-----Zhenyou 貞祐
-----Xingding 興定 1217
-----Yuanguang 元光 1222
Wanyan Xun 完顏珣1213-1224
Jin Aizong 金哀宗
-----< >Zhengda 正大
-----Kaixing 開興 1232
-----Tianxing 天興 1232
Wanyan Shouxu 完顏守緒1224-1234
The Last Emperor (Mozhu) 金末帝
-----Shengcha 盛昌
-----Tianxing 天興
Wanyan Chenglin 完顏承鱗1234

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were the patriarchs Han Daoxi 韓道熙, Xiao Zhongchong 肖忠沖, and Xiao Fudao 肖輔道. Because the philosophical depth of this school was not too deep, it vanished during the Yuan Dynasty.
In contrast, the philosophical and ethical rules (jiu tiao daojie 九條道戒 "Nine Daoist Rules") of the Dadao School 大道教 were much more elaborated and concrete and in many aspects considered the ethical behaviour of Chinese society that was deeply influenced by Confucian thought, and of the philosophy of Laozi who focused on tranquility of lifestyle. The Dadao School was also officially recognized, Liu Deren's followers were Chen Shizheng 陳師正, Zhang Xinzhen 張信真, and Mao Xicong 毛希琮. After the Mongol conquest, Li Xicheng 酈希誠 became the leader of this school that was renamed Zhenda School 真大道.
The most important of the three new Daoist schools was the Quanzhen School 全真道 that is still existant today.

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n system of the central government (see administration of the Jin). Court intrigues among the Jurchen warrior aristocracy lead to the downfall of Wanyan Zonghan's group and the rise of Wanyan Chang 完顏昌 and Wanyan Zongpan 完顏宗磐 who on their own side were again ousted by Wanyan Xiyin, Wanyan Zonggan 完顏宗幹, and Wanyan Zongbi. The capital was shifted to Bianjing 汴京 (Kaifeng) in 1140. In the next year, a treaty between Song China and the Jin emperor fixed the course of the River Huai 淮河 as border between the two empires. The last years of Jin Xizong's reign are characterized by the influence of the clan of this consort, the family Peiman 裴滿. In 1149 Wanyan Dan was murdered by marshal Wanyan Liang 完顏亮, Prince of Hailing 海陵王.
The first steps of Prince Hailing in his government were to weaken the imperial family by executing the sons and grand-sons of Jin Taizong and to appoint Non-Jurchen people with the highest state offices that until then were occupied by members of the Wanyan clan: Da ??? 大[白/大] and Zhang Hao 張浩 were people of Bohai, Zhang Tonggu 張通古 was a Chinese, and Xiao Yu 蕭裕 Xi 奚. He reformed the central government and relied only on the Department of State Affairs (Shangshusheng 尚書省) as administratorial tool, and abolished the Jurchen central military command (du yuanshuaifu 都元帥府) and instead introduced the Chinese central Bureau of Military Affairs (Shumiyuan 樞密院). Yanjing (modern Beijing) became the central capital, and not only the central government moved to this place, but the tombs of Jin Taizu and Taizong were moved to this area. In his plans to conquer southern China, Prince Hailing established Kaifeng as the Southern Capital, and personally attacked the Song capital Lin'an (Hangzhou) in 1153. But because of uprisings of the Khitan and other Non-Jurchen peoples in the northeast (revolt of Yila Wowo 移剌窩斡) and the proclamation of Wanyan Yong 完顏雍 as counter-emperor, the attacks of the Jin troops did not effect their full strength, and after a defeat of the naval forces, Prince Hailing was murdered.
Wanyan Yong (posthumous Jin Shizong 金世宗) did not alter the personal appointments of Prince Hailing because he wanted to ensure the suppression of the northeastern rebellions within a smooth environment. Yilan Wowo had himself proclaimed emperor in 1161 had already occupied a vast area when he was defeated by general Pusan Zhongyi 僕散忠義 and withdrew to the north where he was killed. After the suppression of the Khitan rebellion the Jin armies again moved to the south and occupied territory of modern Anhui province. In 1162 a peace treaty with the Southern Song government introduced a fourty years period of peace between the two empires. This period was also a peaceful and stable time within the Jin empire, Jurchen warriors that had moved to the south became landowners in the traditional Chinese manner. But Wanyan Yong was also the maecenas of the rivival of Jurchen customs and habits, and he had collected Jurchen songs, poems and dances.

The end of the Jurchen empire

His grandson Wanyan Jing 完顏璟 (or Madage 麻達葛; posthumous Jin Zhangzong 金章宗) was also a patron of arts and literature and advocated the cultural and ethnic assimilation of Jurchen and Chinese. During Wanyan Jing's reign the Tatars (Chinese: Dada 韃靼) and Mongols (Chinese: Menggu 蒙古) started to endanger the northern border of the Jin empire, and Khitan rebellions often occurred. And, after a long period of peace, war with the Southern Song broke out, but the Song armies under Han Tuowei were defeated and concluded peace in 1208. Inspite of its victory, the Jin army had suffered bad losses, and after the death of Jin Zhangzong the young Prince of Weishao 衛紹王, Wanyan Yunji 完顏允濟 became regent. In these years, several floodings of the Yellow River devastated the Central Plain, and the suffering peasants were unable to pay the taxes that the Jin government needed to prepare against the Mongol attacks. In the years of 1211 and 1212 Chenggis Khan's armies occupied more and more territory of the Jin empire and attacked the Jin capitals, but withdrew after plundering the cities. In the turmoil, Prince Weishao was murdered by general Heshi Liezhizhong 紇石烈執中 and replaced with Wanyan Xun 完顏珣 (posthumous Jin Xuanzong 金宣宗). Chenggis Khan withdrew the beleaguered capital Yanjing when Wanyan Xun presented him Princess Qiguo 歧國公主. The powerless emperor decided to shift the capital to the south, to Kaifeng, the old capital of Northern Song. The Mongols soon occupied Yanjing. Peasant armies rose up against the Jin government, called Hongaojun 紅襖軍 "Red shirt armies", and landowners had to protect themselves against the intruding Mongol hords. 1217 on the Ĵalaγir Muqali (Chinese: Muhuali 木華黎) took over the command of the Mongol troops to conquer the Jin empire. Under this pressure the Jin court under the leadership of chancellor Shuhu Gaoqi 術虎高琪 decided to withdraw further to the south after conquering the Southern Song territory. In 1218 Shuhu Gaoqi was executed after too many officials had pledged against the unsuccessful conquest campaigns. Two years later the Song court united with the Western Xia empire (Xixia 西夏) to extinguish the Jin Dynasty. In 1223 both the Mongol general Muqali and emperor Jin Xuanzong died. His successor Wanyan Shouxu 完顏守緒 (posthumous Jin Aizong 金哀宗) concentrated on the defense against the Mongols and was able to reconquer some territory. In 1227 the Mongols extinguished the Western Xia empire, and the death of the great Khan only prolonged the life of the Jin Dynasty for some years although the monk-general Wanyan Chen 完顏陳 was able to obtain several victories against the Mongol armies. Ögödei (Chinese: Wohuotai 窩闊台) and Tolui (Chinese: Tuolei 拖雷) personally lead the conquest of Jin, and in the battle of Sanfeng Mountain 三峰山 near Junzhou 鈞州 the Jin army was totally defeated. Kaifeng was beleaguered in 1234, and emperor Wanyan Shouxu fled to Caizhou 蔡州 where the emperor transferred the throne to Wanyan Chenglin 完顏承鱗 and committed suicide. The Jin Dynasty became history.

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