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Chinese History - The Non-Chinese peoples and states of the northeast
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Northeastern peoples and states:
|PIC||Mohe, and during the first period of the Bohai empire the realm was also called Mohe 靺鞨, or Zhenguo 震國. Old Chinese historians identify the old inhabitants of Manchuria, the Sushen 肅慎 and Yilou 挹婁 or Wuji 勿吉, as ancestors of the Mohe. During the Three Kingdoms (Sanguo) 三國 period the Mohe freed themselves the sovereignity of the Fuyu kingdom 夫余 and sent presents and tributes to the Chinese dynasties. During the Sui Dynasty 隋 the seven tribes of the Wuji are said to have adopted the name Mohe, the largest and mightiest tribe being the Sumo-Mohe 粟末靺鞨. The Sumo submitted to the Sui Dynasty, while the other tribes of the Mohe became subjects of the Korean Koguryŏ kingdom (Chinese: Gaogouli 高句麗). In the next decades most tribes of the Mohe traveled back to the origin territory more north of the Liao River 遼河. In 698 a chieftain named Da Zuorong 大祚榮 who was enfeoffed by the Tang Dynasty 唐 as Prince of the Commandery Bohai 渤海郡王 founded the Zhen empire and was acknowledged by the Tang court as regional ruler installed by Tang. The first capital of the Bohai kingdom was located near Dunhua 敦化/Jilin, but soon shifted to Longquan 龍泉 (modern Ning'an 寧安/Heilongjiang). During the whole Tang period, the Bohai kingdom controlled the northeast within the Amur River until the sea.|
Under the influence of the Tang empire, the administration system of the Bohai kingdom was shaped in a style similar to the Tang administration system with three departments (sansheng 三省) and six ministries (liubu 六部) in the central government, and with prefectures (fu 府 and zhou 州) and counties (xian 縣) as local administration structure. The military was organized in 16 guards (shiliuwei 十六衛). Likewise, the economy of the Bohai kingdom assimilated to the Chinese economical conditions and situations because the southern territories of Bohai were inhabited by numerous Chinese. The nomad Mohe people, once engaging in stockbreeding, started to cultivate field crops, in summer even wet rice, and planted mulberry trees. "International" trade was undertaken with the neighboring states and peoples, the Turks, Tang China, Korea, and Japan. Court nobles of Bohai like Pei Ting 裴頲 and Da Mouze 大某則 composed Chinese poems. the end of the 9th century on some northern tribes of the Mohe began to fight for independency the central government. In 926 the Bohai kingdom collpsed under the attacks of the neighboring Khitan realm 契丹.
The capitals of Bohai were five, following the pattern of the Tang that had a central capital with several secondary capitals:
Wuji 勿吉 > See MoheXiongnu 匈奴 or Xianbei 鮮卑 federation, roaming the area between modern Inner Mongolia and Heilongjiang province. This nomad steppe people was subjugated by the Northern Wei (Beiwei 北魏) in 388. When the Northern Wei Dynasty disengaged, the Xi (or Kumoxi 庫莫奚; Turkish: Tatabi) divided into five divisions of which the tribe of chieftain (irkin, Chinese: yijin 俟斤) Ahui 阿會 was the mightiest. After a short period of submission to the Turks, the Xi presented their tributs to the new-founded Tang Dynasty 唐. Their territory was administered as protectorate (dudufu 都督府) Raole 饒樂, and their chieftain granted the surname Li 李 of the Tang emperors (a method also often used by the Han Dynasty 漢 of the family Liu 劉). The Xi were allowed to govern their own territory autonomously as long as they accepted their dependance of the Tang court. Xi rulers were even bestowed the title of Prince (wang 王) and were given Chinese princesses. The whole 8th century there was an intensive trade with social and cultural exchange with Tang China, but form the 9th century on the Xi tribes disengaged and divided into an eastern and a western branch. At the same time the Khitan (Chinese: Qidan 契丹) won strength and power and incorporated the rest of the Eastern Xi tribes (Liubu Xi 六部奚) into their empire of Liao 遼. Their mightiest chieftain was given the title of Prince and run his own subcourt (Xiwangfu 奚王府) at the Liao capital. For administration, many Chinese officials were employed, and Chinese peasants were robbed and resettled in the area of the Six Xi. Emperor Liao Shenzong dissolved the Xi subcourt but installed a secondary capital within the old Xi territory. The Xi people at that time partially followed the traditional nomad lifestyle, but also cultivated fields. With the conquest of the Jurchen (Chinese: Ruzhen 女真) and their foundation of the Jin Dynasty 金 the Xi belonged to this new empire. The Xi empire, founded by Xiao Gan 蕭幹 (Huilibao 回離保) only survived eight months. The Jurchen installed their own generals as governors of the Xi commandery (Jurchen-Chinese: meng'an mouke 猛安謀克), and their people merged with the Jurchen and the Chinese.
Yilou 挹婁 > See Mohe