Three Kingdoms
Sima Yi, 司马懿 (A.D.179 - 251) Wei魏 Force Military Counsellor English Particular
 

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司马懿(179年-251年),字仲达,河内郡温县孝敬里(今河南省温县招贤镇)人,三国时期魏国杰出的政治家、军事家、权臣。多次率军对抗诸葛亮,以其功著,封宣王。其孙司马炎称帝后,追尊为晋宣帝。
Sima Yi (A.D. 179 - 251), alias: Zhong Da, "He Nei Jun"河内郡 "Wen Xian"温县 "Xiao Jing Li"孝敬里 (now Henan Province "Wen Xian"温县 "Zhao Xian Zhen"招贤镇) the person, Three Kingdoms times Wei Force outstanding statesman, strategist, powerful minister. Leads the army to resist Zhuge Liang many times, because the merit is very big, seals "Xuan Wang"宣王. After his grandson character "Sima Yan"司马炎 proclaims oneself emperor, politely calls him to proclaim the emperor for the Jin.

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司马懿高祖为司马钧,汉安帝时为征西将军,曾祖司马量为豫章太守,祖父司马俊为颍川太守,父司马防为京兆尹。正如懿子司马炎所说:“本诸生家,传礼来久。”
Sima Yi ancestor has "Sima Jun"司马钧, Han An Di go on a punitive expedition west general, the paternal great-grandfather "Sima Liang"司马量 works as "Yu Zhang"豫章 "Tai Shou"太守, the grandfather has taken charge of "Sima Jun"司马俊 to work as the "Ying Zhou"颍川 "Tai Shou"太守, father "Sima Fang"司马防 has guarded against has worked as "Jing Zhao Yin"京兆尹. Officials aristocratic family.

司马懿自幼聪明多大略,博学洽闻,伏膺儒教。因曹操出身“赘阉遗丑”,曾一度拒绝他的授予官职,但建安十三年(208年),曹操任丞相后,强行辟司马懿为文学掾。因司马懿曾支持曹操称帝(“汉运垂终,殿下十分天下而有其九,以服事之。权之称臣,天人之意也”),所以逐渐赢得了曹操的信任。
Sima Yi intelligently is diligent since childhood, the ambition is broad. Because the Cao Cao family background is not good, once refused to work as Cao Cao official, but arrived (A.D. 208), Cao Cao held the post of after prime minister, forced the Sima Yi "Wen Xue Yuan"文学掾. Afterwards Sima beautiful supported Cao Cao to proclaim oneself emperor, therefore gradually has won Cao Cao's trust.

曹操封魏王后,以司马懿为太子中庶子以佐助曹丕。曹丕临终时,令司马懿与曹真等为辅政大臣,辅佐魏明帝曹睿。明帝时,司马懿屡迁抚军大将军、大将军、太尉等重职。明帝崩,托孤幼帝曹芳以司马懿和曹爽。曹芳继位后,司马懿先是遭到曹爽排挤,迁官为无实权的太傅。
Cao Cao seals Queen Wei, lets Sima Yi assist "Cao Pi"曹丕 to manage. When Cao Pi just before the end, beautiful lets Sima Yi with "Cao Zhen"曹真 and so on work as auxiliary political minister, assists Wei Mingdi the "Cao Hui"曹睿. Ming Dishi, Sima Yi takes on general, and so on many times the important position. Front Ming Di died, lets Sima Yi and "Cao Shuang"曹爽 looks after young emperor Cao to be fragrant. After "Cao Fang"曹芳 the position, Sima Yi first is encounters "Cao Shuang"曹爽 to push aside, censures the official for the non- real power "Tai Fu".

正始十年(249年),司马懿乘曹爽陪曹芳离洛阳扫坟,起兵政变并控制京都。自此曹魏军权政权落入司马氏手中。 嘉平三年(251年),司马懿病死。265年,其孙司马炎称帝,建立了西晋。
A.D. 249 Sima beautiful accompanies Cao Fangli while Cao Shuang the Luoyang to sweep the graves, dispatches troops into battle the coup d'etat and controls Kyoto. From now on Wei Force the military authority political power will fall in the Sima hand. (A.D. 251), Sima beautiful dies of illness. A.D. 265, his/her the grandson Sima inflammation proclaimed oneself emperor, has established the Western Jin Dynasty.


军事才略
建安二十四年(219年),蜀将关羽攻魏,败曹仁于樊(今湖北襄樊市),俘于禁,斩庞德。曹操采纳了司马懿的离间计,拉拢孙权,才有了后来所谓的“关羽大意失荆州”。

司马懿于太和五年(231年)、青龙二年(234年)曾两度亲自率兵抗击蜀汉诸葛亮北伐。司马懿采取据险坚守,不多蜀军果然粮尽而自退。诸葛后来的几次北伐也都以失败告终。

司马懿的军事才略还表现在孟达叛魏事件上。孟达原为蜀汉降将,曹丕命他守新城(今湖北房县)。丕死,达欲叛魏归蜀。司马懿了解到这个消息后,一方面写信安抚孟达,一方面潜军进讨,仅用8天行军1200百里。孟达给诸葛亮信中认为司马氏来兵需要一个月时间,所以当司马懿提前二十多天赶来时,完全打乱了他的叛乱部署。后来司马懿仅用16天,就破上庸,斩孟达。

另外,司马懿还有破辽东公孙渊的战绩。

治国之道
司马懿曾向曹操建议屯田制,但曹操纳建后很快就死去了,所以事实上屯田制(尤其是军屯)的推广在曹丕时期。曹魏军屯其主要基地设置在和孙吴(淮河南北)、刘蜀(上邽、长安、槐里、陈仓)对立地带,而这里基地的开创都和司马懿有关。青龙三年(236年),关东饥荒,司马懿调五百万斛粟运往洛阳,足见关中存有大量粮食。

青龙元年(233年),司马懿兴修水利,而“开成国渠,自陈仓至槐里筑临晋陂,引汧洛溉舄卤之地三千余顷”。